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专业四级语法词汇考前恶补——集体名词

  集体名词作主语主谓一致

  1)通常作复数的集体名词

  集体名词,如:police,people,cattle,militia,poultry等,

  通常作复数,用复数动词。如:

  Domestic cattle provide us with milk,beef and hides.

  2)通常作不可数名词的集体名词

  有些集体名词,如foliage,machinery,equipment,furniture,merchandise,通常作不可数名词,随后的动词用单数。例如:All the machinery in the factory is made in China.

  3)既可作单数也可作复数的集体名词

  集体名词,如audience,committee,class,crew,family,public,government等,既可作单数,也可作复数用。

  The city council is meeting to set its agenda.

  4)a committee,etc. of +复数名词

  如果主语是由“a committee of /a panel of /a board of +复数名词”构成,随后的动词通常用单数。例如:

  A committee of five men and three women is to consider the matter.

  近义词辨析

  tired,exhausted,fatigued,weary,wornout

  这组词均含有“疲惫的”的意思。

  tired可指因体力或脑力消耗太多而需要休息,还可指因长期做某事而失去兴趣。

  Henry was so tired that he went to bed immediately after he got home.亨利很疲惫,一到家就上床睡觉去了。

  exhausted

  表达的疲惫程度最强,指因劳累过度而精疲力竭。

  The exhausted engineer fell asleep on the bus.精疲力竭的工程师在公共汽车上睡着了。

  fatigued

  所表达的疲劳程度比tired和weary强,表示由于过度劳累而引起疲乏,不能再继续下去。

  He felt fatigued and didn’t want to say a single word.他疲惫不堪,不想说一句话。

  weary

  语气比tired强,指由于长时间努力工作或由于做单一的事而引起疲倦。

  After a long and weary wait,the plane finally came to take them back.经过漫长而又令人疲乏的等待后,飞机终于来接他们回去了。

  wornout

  这个词不太正式,多用于口语。

  The troops were wornout after winning the battle.战后,部队疲惫不堪。

  全真模拟试题

  1. Although ______ Spanish,he attended the course.

  A. he was knowing

  B. he is knowing

  C. having a knowledge of

  D. knows

  2. You ______that letter to James. However,you didn’t.

  A. ought to write

  B. ought to have written

  C. should write

  D. should be writing

  3. Joseph was very lucky ______ with his life; he almost did not get out of the room.

  A. to escape

  B. to have escaped

  C. to escaping

  D. to be escaping

  4. Bread and butter ______liked by Westerners.

  A. is

  B. are

  C. were

  D. be

  5. The back garden of our house contains a lawn,______very pleasant to sit on in summer.

  A. which is

  B. which it is

  C. it is

  D.where it is

  6. He set up in business ______ his own and was very successful.

  A. in

  B.of

  C.on

  D. by

  7. John’s score on the test is the highest in the class; he ______last night.

  A. must study

  B. should have studied

  C. must have studied

  D. is sure to study

  8. Frank almost never received any education,______?

  A. would he

  B. did he

  C. didn’t he

  D. wouldn’t he

  9.Even if his letter ______ tomorrow,it ______too late to do anything.

  A.will arrive...is

  B.should arrive...were

  C.arrives...will be

  D.arrives...would be

  10. We can hear______from the back of the room.

  A. just as good

  B.just as easy

  C.just as well

  D.easily as well

  11. To obtain a satisfactory result,one must apply two ______of paint on a clean surface.

  A.coats

  B. levels

  C.times

  D. courses

  12. The small mountain village was ______ by the snow for more than one month.

  A. cut back

  B.cut out

  C.cut off

  D. cut away

  13.Miss Green was ______ $100 for driving after drinking.

  A. fined

  B.charged

  C.punished

  D.posed

  14.Modern ______ perhaps causes more problems than it solves.

  A. technique

  B.technology

  C. tactics

  D.tendency

  15. Mary tiptoed over and took the clock away because she hated to hear it ______ when she was trying to go tosleep.

  A. sounding

  B. ringing

  C. ticking

  D. humming

  16. Under this ______ pressure some of the rocks even became liquid.

  A. intensive

  B.weighty

  C.intense

  D.bulky

  试题答案与解析

  1. C) 【句意】虽然只懂一点西班牙语,但他还是参加了这个课程的学习。

  【难点】know是静态动词,不能用于进行时;选knows从句中又缺少主语。knowledge作“知识”讲时是不可数名词,但作“了解”讲时,前面可加“a”,常用于词组have a knowledge of中,所以选C)。

  2. B) 【句意】你本应该给詹姆斯写信,然而,你没写。

  【难点】ought to have written是虚拟语气,与本句句意相符。

  3. B) 【句意】约瑟夫幸运地逃了性命;他险些没从房间里逃出来。

  【难点】to have escaped 是不定式的完成式,表示过去的某一动作业已完成。

  4. A) 【句意】黄油面包受西方人青睐。

  【难点】bread and butter 是西方人吃的一种食品,虽然有三个字,表达的却是一个东西,并且是不可数名词,作单数。

  5. A) 【句意】我家的后花园有一片草坪,夏天坐在上面会令你心旷神怡。

  【难点】which引出非限制性定语从句,在句中作主语,且和sit on 构成动宾关系。类似的句子有:This room is comfortable to live in 这句中live in 和this room构成动宾关系。

  6. C) 【句意】他独自一人开始经商,并且做得很成功。

  【难点】on one’s own 是个常用的介词词组,意为“独自”;of one’s own表示“某人自己的(东西)”,如:I have a flat of my own.我自己有套房子。

  7. C) 【句意】约翰的考试分数全班最高;他昨天晚上一定学习了。

  【难点】表示对过去某一动作行为的猜测须要用must have done这一句型结构。

  8. B) 【句意】弗兰克几乎从未受过任何教育,是不是?

  【难点】这是一句含有否定副词never的一般过去时的句子,由于主句为否定形式,所以反意问句用肯定形式。

  9. C) 【句意】即使他的信明天到也无济于事了。

  【难点】在条件句中表示现在将来的时间,需要用一般现在时,主句中使用将来时。

  10. C) 【句意】我们在房间的后面也能听得很清楚。

  【难点】as well意为“(程度)同样地好”,是副词短语修饰动词hear;just表示程度,意为“刚好”。

  11. A) 【句意】为获得一个满意的结果,你必须在一个干净的表面上涂两层油漆。

  【难点】coat意为“覆盖物,层”;level意为“(建筑物)楼层”;times意为“次,回”;courses意为“(一层)砖面;一排”。

  12. C) 【句意】这个小山村被大雪封住达一个多月。

  【难点】cut back意为“削减;缩减”;cut out意为“停止;切下”;cut off意为“切断;使隔断”;cut away意为“切除;砍掉”。

  13. A) 【句意】格林小姐因酒后驾车被罚100美元。

  【难点】fine意为“处…以罚金”;charge意为“要(价),收(费),要(人)支付(钱)”;punish意为“罚,惩罚”;pose意为“造成,引起(困难)”。

  14. B) 【句意】现代技术所引发的问题也许比它所能解决的要多。

  【难点】technique意为“技法;具体的技术”;technology意为“工业技术”;tactics意为“战术,兵法,策略”;tendency意为“倾向”。

  15. C) 【句意】玛丽蹑手蹑脚走过来把钟拿走了,因为她讨厌在自己想睡觉的时候听它滴哒地响。

  【难点】sound意为“作声,发声,响”;ring意为“鸣,发出清脆响亮的声音”;tick意为“发出滴哒声”;hum意为“发连续低沉的声音(如蜜蜂、马达的嗡嗡声)”。

  16. C) 【句意】在这种强大的压力下,一些岩石甚至变成了液体。

  【难点】intensive意为“加强的;集中的”;weighty意为“沉重的;笨重的”;intense意为“强烈的,剧烈的”;bulky意为“庞大的;粗壮的”。

来源:中华考试网
责任编辑:Cherry

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