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2015年12月英语四级阅读模拟训练(一)

  一

  Baekeland and Hartmann report that the “short sleepers” had been more or less average in their sleep needs until the men were in their teens. But at about age 15 or so, the men voluntarily began cutting down their nightly sleep time because of pressures from school, work, and other activities. These men tended to view their nightly periods of unconsciousness as bothersome interruptions in their daily routines.

  In general, these “short sleeps” appeared ambitious, active, energetic, cheerful, conformist(不动摇) in their opinions, and very sure about their career choices. They often held several jobs at once, or workers full-or part-time while going to school. And many of them had a strong urge to appear “normal” or “acceptable” to their friends and associates.

  When asked to recall their dreams, the “short sleepers” did poorly. More than this, they seemed to prefer not remembering. In similar fashion, their usual way of dealing with psychological problems was to deny that the problem existed, and then to keep busy in the hope that the trouble would go away.

  The sleep patterns of the “short sleepers” were similar to, but less extreme than, sleep patterns shown by many mental patients categorized as manic(疯人).

  The “long sleepers” were quite different indeed. Baekeland and Hartmann report that these young men had been lengthy sleeps since childhood. They seemed to enjoy their sleep, protected it, and were quite concerned when they were occasionally deprived of their desired 9 hours of nightly bed rest. They tended to recall their dreams much better than did the “short sleepers.”

  Many of the “long sleepers” were shy, anxious, introverted (内向), inhibited (压抑), passive, mildly depressed, and unsure of themselves (particularly in social situations). Several openly states that sleep was an escape from their daily problems.

  1. According to the report,______.

  A) many short sleepers need less sleep by nature

  B) many short sleepers are obliged to reduce their nightly sleep time because they are busy with their work

  C) long sleepers sleep a longer period of time during the day

  D) many long sleepers preserve their sleeping habit formed during their childhood

  2. Many “short sleepers” are likely to hold the view that _____.

  A) sleep is a withdrawal from the reality

  B) sleep interferes with their sound judgement

  C) sleep is the least expensive item on their routine program

  D) sleep is the best way to deal with psychological troubles

  3. It is stated in the third paragraph that short sleepers _____.

  A) are ideally vigorous even under the pressures of life

  B) often neglect the consequences of inadequate sleep

  C) do not know how to relax properly

  D) are more unlikely to run into mental problems

  4. When sometimes they cannot enjoy adequate sleep, the long sleepers might ____.

  A) appear disturbed

  B) become energetic

  C) feel dissatisfied

  D) be extremely depressed

  5. Which of the following is Not included in the passage?

  A) If one sleeps inadequately, his performance suffers and his memory is weakened

  B) The sleep patterns of short sleepers are exactly the sane as those shown by many mental patients

  C) Long and short sleepers differ in their attitudes towards sleep

  D) Short sleepers would be better off with more rest

  答案:DCBAB

  贝克尔和哈特曼报道说,“睡眠少的人”在未进入少年期之前,其正常睡眠时间大致与所需要的时间差不多。但到了15岁左右,由于学校、工作或其它活动的地压力,他们就故意地减少了夜间睡眠的时间。这些人持有这样的观点:夜间睡眠是一件令人讨厌的事情,打断了日常事务。

  总的说来,这些“睡眠少的人”表现得雄心勃勃、积极活跃、精力充沛、无意识乐观豁达、立场坚定,对自己职业的选择胸有成竹。他们往往同时从事几项工作,或者一边上学读书,一边从事专职或兼职工作。其中许多人有强烈愿望,想在朋友和熟人面前表现得“正常”或“合群”。

  当让他们回忆梦境时,“睡眠少的人”回忆不起什么来。更有甚者,他们似乎情愿什么都记不住。类似的情况是他们通常处理心理问题的方式:不承认问题的存在,希望只要忙忙碌碌,麻烦总会过去的。

  “睡眠少的人”的睡眠模式与被划入疯子之类精神病患者的睡眠模式十分相似,只不过没有那么严重而已。

  “睡眠多的人”情形则大不相同。贝克尔和哈特曼报道说,这些年轻人从小的,有抱负的睡眠就一直很长。他们好像注重睡眠,不让睡眠受打搅。偶尔没有所需的9个小时夜间卧床休息,他们便会十分不安。他们比“睡眠少的人”要更能回忆得起梦的内容。许多“睡眠多的人”腼腆、焦躁、内向、压抑、消极和稍微有点儿沮丧,尤其在社交场合缺乏自信。好几个人坦言,睡眠是摆脱每天烦恼的一种方式。

  二

  Upon reaching an appropriate age (usually between 18 and 21 years), children are encouraged, but not forced, to “leave the nest” and begin an independent life. After children leave home they often find social relationship and financial support outside the family. Parents do not arrange marriages for their children, nor do children usually ask permission of their parents to get married, Romantic love is most often the basis for marriage in the United States; young adults meet their future spouses (配偶) through other friends, at jobs, and in organizations and religious institutions, Although children choose their own spouses, they still hope their parents will approve of their choices.来源:www.examda.com

  In many families, parents feel that children should make major life decisions by themselves. A parent may try to influence a child to follow a particular profession but the child is free to choose another career. Sometimes children do precisely the opposite of what their parents wish in order to assert their independence. A son may deliberately decide not to go into his father’s business because of a fear that he will lose his autonomy in his father’s workplace. This independence from parents is not an indication that parents and children do not love each other. Strong love between parents and children is universal and this is no exception in the American family Coexisting with such love in the American family are cultural values of self – reliance and independence.

  1. The writer discusses the marriage of young adults in order to show which of the following?

  A) They enjoy the freedom of choosing their spouses.

  B) They want to win the permission of their parents.

  C) They have a strong desire to become independent.

  D) They want to challenge the authority of their parents.

  2. Most young adults in the U.S. get married for the sake of ____.

  A) love

  B) financial concern

  C) their parents

  D) family background

  3. Based on the passage, it can be assumed that ______.

  A) American young adults are likely to follow the suit of their parents

  B) most American people never make major decisions for their children

  C) American young adults possess cultural values of independence

  D) once a young person steps into his twenties, he will leave his home permanently

  4. A son is unwilling to work in his father’s business mainly because _____.

  A) he wishes to make full use of what he has learnt in school

  B) he wants to prove his independence

  C) he wishes to do the opposite of what his parents approve of

  D) he wants to show his love for his parents

  5. The subject matter of this selection is _____.

  A) family values

  B) marriage arrangements

  C) the pursuit of a career

  D) decision making

  答案:

  CACBA

  子女一旦到适当年龄(通常是18至21岁),要鼓励而不是强迫他们“离开窝的,财政的巢”,开始独立生活。小孩离开家后,往往在外能够与人交往,并自谋出路。父母不为子女安排婚姻,子女结婚也通常无需获得父母同意。在美国,浪漫的爱情往往是婚姻的基础,青年人通过朋友在学校、单位、组织以及宗教团体认识自己的,爱情的未来的伴侣。尽管子女自己择偶,他们仍然希望父母能认同他们的选择。

  许多家庭的父母认为,应由子女自己来做他们生活中的重大决定。家长可能会设法影响子女去从事某一职业,但子女也有选择其它职业的自由。有时为了证实自己的独立性,子女从事的工作正好与父母希望的相反。儿子可能执意不去父亲的企业工作,因为担心在那里就不能独立自主。这种不依靠父母的独立性并不意味着父母与子女之间缺乏爱心。父母和子女之间普遍都有挚爱,美国家庭也毫不例外。只不过在美国家庭之中,还融合了自主、独立的文化价值观念。

来源:中华考试网
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