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  Baekeland and Hartmann report that the “short sleepers” had been more or less average in their sleep needs until the men were in their teens. But at about age 15 or so, the men voluntarily began cutting down their nightly sleep time because of pressures from school, work, and other activities. These men tended to view their nightly periods of unconsciousness as bothersome interruptions in their daily routines.

  In general, these “short sleeps” appeared ambitious, active, energetic, cheerful, conformist(不动摇) in their opinions, and very sure about their career choices. They often held several jobs at once, or workers full-or part-time while going to school. And many of them had a strong urge to appear “normal” or “acceptable” to their friends and associates.

  When asked to recall their dreams, the “short sleepers” did poorly. More than this, they seemed to prefer not remembering. In similar fashion, their usual way of dealing with psychological problems was to deny that the problem existed, and then to keep busy in the hope that the trouble would go away.

  The sleep patterns of the “short sleepers” were similar to, but less extreme than, sleep patterns shown by many mental patients categorized as manic(疯人).

  The “long sleepers” were quite different indeed. Baekeland and Hartmann report that these young men had been lengthy sleeps since childhood. They seemed to enjoy their sleep, protected it, and were quite concerned when they were occasionally deprived of their desired 9 hours of nightly bed rest. They tended to recall their dreams much better than did the “short sleepers.”

  Many of the “long sleepers” were shy, anxious, introverted (内向), inhibited (压抑), passive, mildly depressed, and unsure of themselves (particularly in social situations). Several openly states that sleep was an escape from their daily problems.

  1. According to the report,______.

  A) many short sleepers need less sleep by nature

  B) many short sleepers are obliged to reduce their nightly sleep time because they are busy with their work

  C) long sleepers sleep a longer period of time during the day

  D) many long sleepers preserve their sleeping habit formed during their childhood

  2. Many “short sleepers” are likely to hold the view that _____.

  A) sleep is a withdrawal from the reality

  B) sleep interferes with their sound judgement

  C) sleep is the least expensive item on their routine program

  D) sleep is the best way to deal with psychological troubles

  3. It is stated in the third paragraph that short sleepers _____.

  A) are ideally vigorous even under the pressures of life

  B) often neglect the consequences of inadequate sleep

  C) do not know how to relax properly

  D) are more unlikely to run into mental problems

  4. When sometimes they cannot enjoy adequate sleep, the long sleepers might ____.

  A) appear disturbed

  B) become energetic

  C) feel dissatisfied

  D) be extremely depressed

  5. Which of the following is Not included in the passage?

  A) If one sleeps inadequately, his performance suffers and his memory is weakened

  B) The sleep patterns of short sleepers are exactly the sane as those shown by many mental patients

  C) Long and short sleepers differ in their attitudes towards sleep

  D) Short sleepers would be better off with more rest








  Upon reaching an appropriate age (usually between 18 and 21 years), children are encouraged, but not forced, to “leave the nest” and begin an independent life. After children leave home they often find social relationship and financial support outside the family. Parents do not arrange marriages for their children, nor do children usually ask permission of their parents to get married, Romantic love is most often the basis for marriage in the United States; young adults meet their future spouses (配偶) through other friends, at jobs, and in organizations and religious institutions, Although children choose their own spouses, they still hope their parents will approve of their choices.来源:www.examda.com

  In many families, parents feel that children should make major life decisions by themselves. A parent may try to influence a child to follow a particular profession but the child is free to choose another career. Sometimes children do precisely the opposite of what their parents wish in order to assert their independence. A son may deliberately decide not to go into his father’s business because of a fear that he will lose his autonomy in his father’s workplace. This independence from parents is not an indication that parents and children do not love each other. Strong love between parents and children is universal and this is no exception in the American family Coexisting with such love in the American family are cultural values of self – reliance and independence.

  1. The writer discusses the marriage of young adults in order to show which of the following?

  A) They enjoy the freedom of choosing their spouses.

  B) They want to win the permission of their parents.

  C) They have a strong desire to become independent.

  D) They want to challenge the authority of their parents.

  2. Most young adults in the U.S. get married for the sake of ____.

  A) love

  B) financial concern

  C) their parents

  D) family background

  3. Based on the passage, it can be assumed that ______.

  A) American young adults are likely to follow the suit of their parents

  B) most American people never make major decisions for their children

  C) American young adults possess cultural values of independence

  D) once a young person steps into his twenties, he will leave his home permanently

  4. A son is unwilling to work in his father’s business mainly because _____.

  A) he wishes to make full use of what he has learnt in school

  B) he wants to prove his independence

  C) he wishes to do the opposite of what his parents approve of

  D) he wants to show his love for his parents

  5. The subject matter of this selection is _____.

  A) family values

  B) marriage arrangements

  C) the pursuit of a career

  D) decision making






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