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2015年12月英语四级阅读模拟训练(二)

  三

  Now let us look at how we read. When we read a printed text, our eyes move across a page in short, jerky movement. We recognize words usually when our eyes are still when they fixate. Each time they fixate, we see a group of words. This is known as the recognition span or the visual span. The length of time ofr which the eyes stop ---the duration of the fixation ----varies considerably from person to person. It also vaies within any one person according to his purpose in reading and his familiarity with the text. Furthermore, it can be affected by such factors as lighting and tiredness.

  Unfortunately, in the past, many reading improvement courses have concentrated too much on how our eyes move across the printed page. As a result of this misleading emphasis on the purely visual aspects of reading, numerous exercises have been devised to train the eyes to see more words at one fixation. For instance, in some exercises, words are flashed on to a screen for, say, a tenth or a twentieth of a second. One of the exercises has required students to fix their eyes on some central point, taking in the words on either side. Such word patterns are often constructed in the shape of rather steep pyramids so the reader takes in more and more words at each successive fixation. All these exercises are very clever, but it’s one thing to improve a person’s ability to see words and quite another thing to improve his ability to read a text efficiently. Reading requires the ability to understand the relationship between words. Consequently, for these reasons, many experts have now begun to question the usefulness of eye training, especially since any approach which trains a person to read isolated words and phrases would seem unlikely to help him in reading a continuous text.

  Q:

  1. The time of the recognition span can be affected by the following facts except ________ .

  A. one’s familiarity with the text

  B. one’s purpose in reading

  C. the length of a group of words

  D. lighting and tiredness

  2. The author may believe that reading ______.

  A. requires a reader to take in more words at each fixation

  B. requires a reader to see words more quickly

  C. demands an deeply-participating mind

  D. demands more mind than eyes

  3 What does the author mean by saying “but it’s one thing to improve a person’s ability to see words and quite another thing to improve his ability to read a text efficiently.” in the second parapraph?

  A. The ability to see words is not needed when an efficient reading is conducted.

  B. The reading exercises mentioned can’t help to improve both the ability to see and to comprehend words.

  C. The reading exercises mentioned can’t help to improve an efficient reading.

  D. The reading exercises mentioned has done a great job to improve one’s ability to see words.

  4. Which of the following is NOT true?

  A. The visual span is a word or a group of words we see each time.

  B. Many experts began to question the efficiency of eye training.

  C. The emphasis on the purely visual aspects is misleading.

  D.The eye training will help readers in reading a continuous text.

  5. The tune of the author in writing this article is ________

  A critical

  B neutral

  C prssimistic

  D optimistic

  答案:CCCDA

  解题思路

  1 C。事实细节题。第一段提到了影响视幅的因素:不同的人,不同的阅读目的,对材料的熟悉程度,光线,疲劳。C“一组词的长度”不是能影响视幅的因素,是本题的答案。

  2 C。观点态度题。作者在第二段第二句提到,眼睛训练课程只注重了阅读的视觉因素。倒数第二句书哦,阅读要求具备理解单词间关系的能力。因此选项C“阅读需要大脑的深度参与”正确。作者没有否定阅读的视觉因素的必要性,但是也没有说读者应该练习拓宽视幅,加快阅读速度。所以AB两项都不正确。作者没有对大脑和眼睛在阅读过程中的重要性进行对比,所以不选D

  3 C。 作者在这句话中先是肯定了那些阅读练习提高看单词的能力,然后提出了有效阅读概念。后面句中还指出,有效阅读需要的是理解单词间的联系的能力。所以作者的意思应该是那些(训练眼睛的)阅读练习对与有效的阅读无益。B与文章相反。D句是蕴涵其中一个意思,却不是作者想表达的方向。

  4 D。 第二段最后一句说,眼睛训练对于帮助读者阅读连贯文章无益,所以D是错的,是本题答案。

  5 A。 参考前面的结构剖析,作者写本文的主要目的是对那些只关注阅读的视觉因素的阅读能力课程进行批判,所以答案应该是A。

  四

  Our quarrel with efficiency is not that it gets things done, but that it is a thief of time when it leaves us no leisure to enjoy ourselves, and that it strains our nerves when we try to get things done perfectly. In building bridges, American engineers calculate so finely and exactly as to make the two ends come together within one-tenth of an inch. But when two Chinese begin to dig a tunnel from both sides of a mountain both come out on the other side. --The Chinese’s firm belief is that it doesn’t matter so long as a tunnel is dug through, and if we have two instead of one, why, we have a double track to boot.

  The pace of modern industrial life forbids this kind of glorious and magnificent idling. But, worse than that, it imposes upon us a different conception of time as measured by the clock and eventually turns the human being into a clock himself. (This sort of thing is bound to come to China, as is evident, for instance, in the case of a factory of twenty thousand worker. The luxurious prospect of twenty thousand workers coming in at their own sweet pleasure at all hours is, of course, somewhat terrifying.)Nevertheless, such efficiency is what makes life so hard and full of excitement. A man who has to be punctually at a certain place at five o’clock has the whole afternoon from one to five ruined for him already. Every American adult is arranging his time on the pattern of the schoolboy - three o’clock for this, five o’clock for that, six-thirty for change of dress, six-fifty for entering the taxi, and seven o’clock for arriving at the destination. It just makes life not worth living.

  1. The writer objects to efficiency mainly on the grounds that it ____.

  A) entitles us to too much leisure time

  B) urges us to get things done punctually

  C) deprives us of leisure time

  D) imposes on us a perfect concept of time

  2. In the eyes of the author, the introduction of industrial life gives rise to ____.

  A) the excitement of life

  B) magnificent idling of time

  C) more emphasis on efficiency

  D) terrifying schoolboy

  3. The passage tells us ____.

  A) Chinese workers come to work when it is convenient

  B) all Americans are forced to be efficient against their will

  C) Chinese engineers are on better terms with the management

  D) Americans ought not to work so hard for efficiency

  4. The author believes that relaxing the rule of punctuality in factories would lead to ____.

  A) great confusion

  B) increased production

  C) a hard and exciting life

  D) successful completion of a tunnel

  5. What is implied but NOT stated by the author is that ____.

  A) every American is arranging his time in the pattern of a schoolboy

  B) every American is reluctant to be efficient

  C) every one should have some time to spend as he pleases

  D) being punctual is an undesirable habit which should not be formed

  答案:

  1.C)deprives us of leisure time对应原文第一句but that it is a thief of time when it leaves us no leisure to enjoy ourselves. 选项A是与作者想法完全相反的; 选项B虽有章可循, 但要注意原文是it strains our nerves when we try to get things done perfectly, 而非it直接urges us to get things done punctually; 选项D要看清, 原文是a different conception of time而非a perfect concept of time.

  2.C)more emphasis on efficiency对应原文第二段第一句The pace of modern industrial life forbids this kind of glorious and magnificent idling. 通过第一段可以看出, 与efficiency对立的是this kind of glorious and magnificent idling, 而industrial life又forbids, 自然说明industrial life gives rise to more emphasis on efficiency.

  3.D)Americans ought not to work so hard for efficiency. 排除法: A)Chinese workers come to work when it is convenient不符合原文()中的内容; B)all Americans are forced to be efficient against their will语气太重, 不是被强迫讲求效率, 也不是违背自己意愿, 只是为了适应工业社会; C)Chinese engineers are on better terms with the management不属于本文讨论范畴。。。

  4.A)great confusion对应原文(This sort of thing is bound to come to China, as is evident, for instance, in the case of a factory of twenty thousand worker. The luxurious prospect of twenty thousand workers coming in at their own sweet pleasure at all hours is, of course, somewhat terrifying.)

  5.C)every on should have some time to spend as he pleases, 这是4个选项中唯一一个符合is implied but NOT stated两个条件的. A选项有被直接提及, B选项reluctant是不愿的意思, 而本文并非讨论愿不愿的问题, D选项being punctual is an undesirable habit which should not be formed, 黑体部分分别为守时和不良习惯的意思, 显然不是作者本意.

  总结一下, 今天这期比昨天讲小猫小狗的阅读要难一些- -, 是一篇既要求词汇量, 同时又要求答题技巧的典型的阅读理解. 所谓答题技巧, 就是首先要读懂文章的大概意思, 然后注意一些关键句子.

  关键句子很有可能出现在段落的连接部分, 比如开头和结尾. 一般情况下, 阅读理解的前面几道题是可以从原文的关键句子中直接找出答案的, 而后面几道题, 往往要求综合全文来分析. 最近几天的阅读, 大体分为两种: 一种是偏向主观论述的阅读, 比如倒数55天的癌症、倒数53天的空调和今天的效率; 另一种是偏向客观叙述的阅读, 比如倒数52天的家养宠物和倒数54天的无家可归的儿童. 前者往往要着重考虑作者的中心思想, 后者往往要着重考虑作者的整体内容.

来源:中华考试网
责任编辑:Cherry

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