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2015年12月英语四级阅读模拟训练(四)

  七

  Until the 1980s, the American homeless population comprised mainly older males. Today, homelessness strikes much younger part of society. In fact, a 25-city survey by the U. S. Conference of Mayors in 1987 found that families with children make up the fastest growing part of the homeless population. Many homeless children gather in inner cities; this transient(变化无常的) and frequently frightened student population creates additional problems — both legal and educational — for already overburdened urban school administrators and teachers.

  Estimates of the number of homeless Americans range from 350,000 to three million. Likewise, estimates of the number of homeless school children vary radically. A U.S. Department of Education report, based on state estimates, states that there are 220,000 homeless school-age children, about a third of whom do not attend school on a regular basis, But the National Coalition for the Homeless estimates that there are at least two times as many homeless children, and that less than half of them attend school regularly.    One part of the homeless population that is particularly difficult to count consists of the “throwaway” youths who have been cast of their homes. The Elementary School Center in New York City estimates that there are 1.5 million of them, many of whom are not counted as children because they do not stay in family shelters and tend to live by themselves on the streets.    Federal law, the Stewart B. McKinney Homeless Assistance Act of 1987, includes a section that addresses the educational needs of homeless children. The educational provisions of the McKinney Act are based on the belief that all homeless children have the right to a free, appropriate education.

  1. It is implied in the first paragraph that ____.

  A) the writer himself is homeless, even in his eighties

  B) many older homeless residents are going on strike in 25 cities

  C) there is a serious shortage of academic facilities

  D) homeless children are denied the opportunity of receiving free education

  2. The National Coalition for the homeless believes that the number of homeless children is _____.

  A) 350,000

  B) 1,500,000

  C) 440,000

  D) 110,000

  3. One part of the homeless population is difficult to estimate. The reason might well be ____.

  A) the homeless children are too young to be counted as children

  B) the homeless population is growing rapidly

  C) the homeless children usually stay outside school

  D) some homeless children are deserted by their families

  4. The McKinney Act is mentioned in this passage in order to show that ___.

  A) the educational problems of homeless children are being recognized

  B) the estimates on homeless children are hard to determine

  C) the address of grade-school children should be located

  D) all homeless people are entitled to free education

  5. The passage mainly deals with ____.

  A) the legal problems of the homeless children

  B) the educational problems of homeless children

  C) the social status of older males

  D) estimates on the homeless population

  答案:C C D A B

  直到20世纪80年代,美国无家可归的人口主要包括的还是年龄较大的男性。现在,社会上年龄较小的一些人也面临无家可归的威胁。的确,美国市长会议在1987年对25个城市进行了一项调查,结果表明,在无家可归的人口中,儿童的增长比例是最快的。许多无家可归的儿童都聚集在城市的中心地带。其中学龄儿童四处流浪,饱受惊吓。这给已经负担考试大过重的城市教学和教学管理带来了许多额的外的麻烦,其中既涉及法律问题又涉及教育问题。

  美国无家可归的人口数量估计在35万到300万人之间。同样,无家可归的学龄儿童人数也无法做出准确的估计。一份根据各州估计数字而得出的美国教法的育部的报告指出,有22万无家可归的学龄儿童,其中约有三分之一没有按规定上学。然而国家关于无家可归人员的联盟会却估计,这样的儿童人数至少还应该多一倍,其中半数以上没有正常入学。考试大

  有一部分无家可归的人口尤其难以统计,就是那些遭家庭遗弃的“浪荡”少年。据纽约小学中心估计,这样的人口有150万左右。其中还有许多小孩没有估计进去,因为这些小孩不呆在安全的家中,却往往独自在街头流浪。

  联邦法律(1987年斯图尔德•B•麦肯尼无家可归人员救助法案)有一部分专门指出了无家可归儿童的教育需要。法案中有关于教育的条款所依据的观点是所有无家可归的儿童都有权接受正规的义务教育

  八

  Cancer is feared by everyone. And this fear is reaching epidemic(流行性) proportions. Not the disease itself — there is no such thing as a cancer epidemic. Except for lung cancer, mostly caused by cigarette smoking ,the incidence rates are leveling off, and in the case of some kinds of cancer are decreasing. But the fear of cancer is catching, and the country stands at risk of an anxiety, The earth itself is coming to seem like a huge carcinogen(致癌物). The ordinary, more or less scientific statement that something between 80 and 90 percent of all cancers are dun to things in the environment is taken to mean that none of us will be safe until the whole environment is “cleaned up.” This is not at all the meaning.

  The 80-percent calculation is based on the unthinkable differences in the incidence of cancer in various societies around the world — for example, the high proportion of liver cancer in Africa and the Far East, stomach cancer in Japan, breast cancer in Western Europe and North America, and the relatively low figures for breast cancer in Japan and parts of Africa and for liver cancer in America. These data indicate there may be special and specific environmental influences, largely based on personal life-style, that determine the incidence of various forms of cancer in different communities — but that is all the data suggest. The overall incidence of cancer, counting up all the cases, is probable roughly the same everywhere.

  1.Which of the following is closest to meaning to the phrase “leveling off”?

  A)Became very popular

  B)Reached its lowest level in popularity

  C)Stopped being popular

  D)Stopped increasing its popularity

  2.According to the passage, the incidence of cancer is generally believed _____.

  A)to be based on inactive life style

  B)to be due to anxiety

  C)to result from environmental influences

  D)to be caused by heavy smoking

  3.It can be inferred from the passage that the writer’s opinion about the relationship between cancer and environment is_____.

  A)positive

  B)negative

  C)neutral

  D)approving

  4.According to the passage, the writer seems to feel that_____.

  A)cancer risk is on the rise

  B)the whole earth resembles a huge carcinogen

  C)the risk of catching cancer is not so great as most people conceive

  D)cancer can be cured sooner or later

  5.Which of the following would be the best TITLE for the passage?

  A)Cancer and Environment

  B)The Fear Caused by Cancers

  C)Data on Cancer Incidence

  D)Cancer and its Investigation

  D,C,B,C,A

  大家都害怕癌症,这种恐慌正在蔓延开来。倒不是惧怕癌症本身,癌症也并非流行病。除了主要由于抽烟引起的肺癌之外,癌症的发病率不但稳定下来,而且有些还正在减少。但人们却都谈“癌”色变,陷入一种惶恐不安之中。地球本身看上去就越来越像一个巨大的致癌物。有一种多多少少带点科学性的普遍说法,认为80%到90%的癌症都是由于环境中的物质引起的。也就是说,直到把整个环境都“清洁干净”,我们才没有危险。然而,数据所说明的真正含义根本不是这样。

  80%这个数据是基于全球不同地区癌症发病率的差异统计出来的。比如,非洲和远东地区肝癌比例高,日本胃癌比例高,西欧和北美乳腺癌比例高,但是日本和非洲部分地区乳腺癌病例较少,美洲肝癌病例也较少。这些差异使人难于置信。这些数据表明,不同地区癌症的发病率可能受到环境中某些具体和特殊的影响,其实这种影响主要是由个人的生活方式决定的。所以数据不能说明全部情况。如果把所有病例合计起来,也许各地总体发病率都大致相同。

来源:中华考试网
责任编辑:Cherry

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